Mountain Gorge Drawing
Mountain Gorge Drawing

Pen and ink, approx. ? × ? cm (image only). The editors of the Library Edition describe the image as a “a mountain gorge” (Ruskin, Works, 2:364 n. 1). Along a cliffside road, a distant carriage is drawn by two horses with riders, approaching a passage cut through the rock. The drawing is a copy of William Brockedonʼs chapter title vignette for “The Pass of the Simplon”, a scene showing the Entrance to the Great Gallery near Gondo, engraved by Edward Finden, in Illustrations of the Passes of the Alps (vol. 2, “The Pass of the Simplon ”, title page). According to Ruskinʼs Plan for Continuation of the Account of a Tour on the Continent, he destined this drawing for a section entitled Farewell—i.e, “farewell” to Italy, crossing into Switzerland—which he intended to illustrate with “Brockedon from defile with Duomo dʼOssola. Entrance to Gondo Gallery vignette. My own two”. Ruskin reverses the plates as described in Brockedonʼs text, since the Ruskinsʼ itinerary carried them in the opposite direction from that mapped in the Illustrations, which runs from Geneva to Milan via the Simplon. The first scene copied from Brockedon would have been taken from plate 3 for the chapter, Val DʼOssola from the Defile of the Dovedro, described as “the route gradually lower[ing]”—the Ruskins would have looked back on this scene, as they climbed—“to where the grand and beautiful Ponte Crevola crosses the Dovedro [River], at its entrance into the Val dʼOssola. This bridge is first seen where a view of the plains of Domo dʼOssola is also presented. The landscape is one of singular beauty, and its effect, bursting upon the traveller at the end of his journey through the savage defiles of the Dovedro, is very impressive”. Brockedon dwells on these “savage defiles” earlier in the text, “les belles horreurs of the Simplon” leading up to the Gondo Gallery shown in Ruskinʼs surviving drawing: “the rocky and perpendicular bases of the mountains approach more closely, leaving only space for the road and the foaming torrent, which the latter in some places entirely usurps; and in such places the road is carried through galleries cut in the rocks. . . . [T]he wonder of this part of the road is the great gallery, which is formed just below the place where a bridge leads from the right to the left bank of the Dovedro. The ravine appears to be closed in, and the only passage is by one of the most stupendous works ever accomplished—a gallery, cut through the granite, 596 English feet long, which at the opening on the Italian side crosses the waterfall of the Frassinone: this torrent, falling from a great height, rushes through the bridge thrown across it, and descends above 100 feet into the Dovedro, where the latter river, forming a cataract, meets the waters of the Frassinone in horrible commotion: it is a spot unrivalled in its astonishing effect” (Brockedon, Illustrations of the Passes of the Alps (vol. 2, “The Pass of the Simplon ”, 14, 12).
Balstall Drawing
Balstall Drawing

Pen and ink, approx. ? × ? cm (image only). The editors of the Library Edition describe the image as “mountain heights, a castle on one” (Ruskin, Works, 2:364 n. 1). The drawing is a vignette based on an original drawing by Ruskin entitled Ancient Fortress and Rocky peak. / Above the vale of Balstall, Jura" (Ruskin Library, Lancaster, RF 1140; reproduced in , 15). The location is Balsthal, in the canton of Solothurn. Of the two castles in the valley, this drawing apparently represents the Neu‐Falkenstein Castle, which had been burned in 1798 in the Helvetian Revolution. According to Ruskinʼs Plan for Continuation of the Account of a Tour on the Continent, he intended a section entitled “Balstall”, falling between the sections “Rhine” and “Neufchatel”, and it was to be illustrated by a scene that could well refer to this drawing: “Fortress. View of Alps”. In his 1838 guidebook to Switzerland, John Murray III comments on these “imposing ruins of the Castle of Falkenstein, surmounted by its circular Donjon, [which] rise midway between the two roads to Bâle [i.e., Basel], by the Hauenstein and by the Passwang [i.e., two mountain passes in the Jura] which unite here. This position gave to its ancient owners the powers of levying blackmail upon each of these passes. It belonged at one time to Rudolph von Wart [1274–1304], who was broken on the wheel for his share in the murder of the [Habsburg] Emperor Albert [1255–1308], and was consoled in his agony by the presence and fortitude of his wife. The castle was destroyed by the men of Basle, because a waggon laden with saffron, belonging to their merchants, had been pillaged by the Lords of Falkenstein” (Murray, Hand‐book for Travellers in Switzerland, 9–10).
River Drawing
River Drawing

Pen and ink, approx. ? × ? cm (image only). The editors of the Library Edition describe the image as “a river between steep banks, snow mountains in the distance” (Ruskin, Works, 2:364 n. 1). The intended location and a possible original image that Ruskin may have copied are unknown. Note that the drawingʼs width requires it to have been affixed to MS IX broadside; this drawing, therefore, like Liège, could not have accommodated text on the same page.
Mountain Scene with Chalet Drawing
Mountain Scene with Chalet Drawing

Pen and ink, approx. ? × ? cm (image only). The editors of the Library Edition describe the image as “a mountain scene, châlet in foreground” (Ruskin, Works, 2:364 n. 1). The intended location and a possible original image that Ruskin may have copied are unknown.
Mountain Scene with Boulder
Mountain Scene with Boulder Drawing

Pen and ink, approx. ? × ? cm (image only). The editors of the Library Edition describe the image as “a mountain scene” (Ruskin, Works, 2:364 n. 1). The foreground is taken up by a large boulder and a pine. Approaching the declivity between these obstacles, a male figure, accompanied by a dog, carries a bundle on his shoulder. The intended location and a possible original image that Ruskin may have copied are unknown. On the same page, the drawing is pasted above another drawing, Lake Scene with Building on Piers; however, no connection between the drawings is evident, except for their similar, comparatively small rectangular shapes, which made their pairing convenient.
Lake Scene with Building on Piers
Lake Scene with Building on Piers

Pen and ink, approx. ? × ? cm (image only). The editors of the Library Edition describe the image as “a lake with a house on piers islanded on it” (Ruskin, Works, 2:364 n. 1). The lake is surrounded by mountains, and the building on piers is surrounded by two sailboats and a rowboat with passengers. Vaguely sketched figures appear to stand or lean inside the balustrade enclosing the first story of the building, which is tall and narrow with two high windows. Its peaked roof is pierced by dormers, from one of which a pole extends hung with ragged banners or cloths. On the same page, the drawing is pasted below another drawing, Mountain Scene with Boulder Drawing; however, no connection between the drawings is evident, except for their similar, comparatively small rectangular shapes, which made their pairing convenient.
Lakeside with Terraced Villa
Lakeside with Terraced Villa Drawing

Pen and ink, approx. ? × ? cm (image only). The editors of the Library Edition describe the image as “a lake‐side, with terraced gardens, hills behind” (Ruskin, Works, 2:364 n. 1). The image strongly suggests a view of Isola Bella in Lago Maggiore, facing the end of the island where the terraced gardens rise from the level of the lake. The drawing shows the vertical cypresses and statues decorating the terraces, and the horizontal arched wall extending to the right of the terraces. According to the List of Proposed Additional Contents for the “Account”—Illustrations), therefore, Ruskin intended this drawing for the proposed section entitled Domo dʼOssola, which he assigns an illustration of Isola Bella (for an explanation of the connection between these two destinations and of the Ruskins' visit to the gardens on Isola Bella, see entry for Domo dʼOssola in the Proposed Additional Contents).
According to Mary Richardson, while staying at Cadenabbia, the Ruskins visited a number of villas on Lake Como where they could have admired terraced gardens extending down to the lakeside, such as Villa Sommariva and Villa Melzi (Diary of Mary Richardson, 1833, 43–45). In the drawing, the horizontal arched structure extending to the right of the terraces also suggests Villa Pliniana, which the Ruskins visited, and which is built directly on the water as this drawing indicates. The main building of that villa, left of the horizontal wall, is not terraced, however, but presents a sheer, multi–story wall extending vertically straight up from the lakeside. Ruskinʼs drawing may represent a fantasy villa, compounded of various memories and/or sketches made on the spot of villa architecture surrounding the Italian lakes. The drawing also appears to be influenced by J. M. W. Turnerʼs vignettes for the 1830 illustrated edition of Samuel Rogersʼs Italy, such as “A Villa, Moonlight” or “Lake of Como”. The former illustrates Rogersʼs poem, “The Feluca” (set near Genoa, on the seacoast, not on the lakes), and the latter illustrates the closing poem, “A Farewell” (composed at Susa, near Turin, according to a footnote hanging from the title). If the “farewell” is imagined to be written at Susa, the speaker would be departing Italy via the pass of Mont Cenis, which had served as the most popular and accessible route both entering and departing Italy thoughout the eighteenth century (Black, Italy and the Grand Tour, 27–30). In fact, Rogers entered Italy on his 1822–23 tour via the Simplon Pass, which then surpassed the Mont Cenis Pass in popularity owing to the convenience of Napoleonʼs carriage road, and he departed via the Brenner Pass into Austria. Moreover, despite placing the poem “Como” following the speakerʼs descent into Italy in the poem “The Alps”, Rogersʼs actual experience of the Italian lakes was confined to the shores of Lake Maggiore, from whence he traveled directly to Milan, and then went on to Verona, Padua, Venice, Bologna, Florence, Rome, and Naples (The Italian Journal of Samuel Rogers, ed. Hale, 82–83, 161–63).
Mountain Aiguilles Drawing
Mountain Aiguilles Drawing

Pen and ink, approx. ? × ? cm (image only). The editors of the Library Edition describe the image as “aiguilles” (Ruskin, Works, 2:364 n. 1). The intended location and a possible original image that Ruskin may have copied are unknown. The distant aiguilles are drawn with a light touch to suggest distance. In the darker foreground, a tiny figure perches precariously at the edge of a jutting rock to survey the scene.