Staff & Editorial Board




Fall 2020
Starting with Volume 32, the NCS staff and the NCSA board are excited for our publication to join the Journals Division of Pennsylvania State University Press.
Spring 2020
Spring 2020: Despite stay-at-home restrictions due to COVID-19, NCS staff continues working through the final stages of producing volume 31. Once printed, however, the issue must await safe conditions for the staff to prepare the mailing. We thank contributors and readers for your patience.
NCS will be joining the Journal Division of Pennsylvania State University Press, beginning with Volume 32.
Fall 2019
Volume 30, Special Issue "Assembly," available.

The cover of NCS Volume 30

Spring 2019
Volume 29 available.

The cover of NCS Volume 29

April 2018

Call for Submissions: Special Issue of NCS on "Patchwork, Cut-and-Paste, Reassembly"

This special issue will focus on ideas of reuse and recombination. How were bits and scraps of materials, textual and otherwise, reassembled into new forms in the nineteenth century? To what ends? Essays might consider these issues in relation to images, fabrics, texts, and more. Possible topics could include scrapbooks, patchwork, quotation, citation, illustration, and any and all forms of recombination. Approaches from all disciplines, including literature, art history, history, music, and the history of science and the social sciences, are welcome, as are submissions that cross national boundaries and/or range across the nineteenth century. One particularly exciting feature of Nineteenth-Century Studies is thatthe journal encourages authors to enhance their contributions with pertinent artwork.

Please submit manuscripts of 8,000-12,000 words, following NCS's submission guidelines to guest editor Casie LeGette at legette@uga.edu. Early expressions of interest and proposals of topics are also welcome. The deadline for submissions of full manuscripts is August 1, 2018, but review will begin May 1, 2018 and earlier submissions are encouraged.

December 2017

Now Available: 19th Century Studies, Vol. 27.

The cover of NCS Volume 27

February 2017

Now Available: 19th Century Studies, Vol. 26.

The cover of NCS Volume 26

March 7, 2013
NCS introduces new online reviews feature. See online reviews.
March 1, 2011
NCSA introduces new Nineteenth Century Studies journal Web site.
March 15, 2010
Now Available: 19th Century Studies, Vol. 22.


Instructions to Authors

  • Feature Essays
  • Review Essays
  • General Submission Criteria
  • Manuscript Format
  • Figures, Tables, Appendices
  • Length
  • Abstracts
  • NCS Style
  • Responding to Queries and Making Changes
  • Reading “Redlining and Strikeout”
  • Codes
  • Returning Copyedited Manuscript and Attachments
  • What Are Proofs?
  • Avoid Revision in Proofs
  • Checklist
  • Returning Proofs

  • Submission Information

    Submission Procedure

    To submit a manuscript to Nineteenth Century Studies, please use the Editorial Manager as directed on our page on the Pennsylvania State University Press (PSUP) journals page. Before submitting, please see Topics and Submission Requirements.


    Feature Essays Nineteenth Century Studies publishes studies of interest to scholars of the nineteenth century in all fields. Topics include, but are not limited to, literature, art history, history, music, and the history of science and the social sciences. We welcome submissions that cross national boundaries and/or range across the nineteenth century. We also wish to encourage submissions of essays treating the material cultures and popular arts, entertainments, and literatures, and their significance in nineteenth-century societies.

    Studies focused intensively on a single text or work of art are quite appropriate if also affording broad interdisciplinary interest; however, studies of single works are not encouraged, if likely to appeal only to very specialized interests.

    Successful submissions to NCS are typically characterized by their authors having “done their homework.” With due allowance for the commonly recognized proportions of a journal article, authors should demonstrate in their arguments and documentation that they have thoroughly paid respect to fellow workers in a given field. Even then, authors whose articles are accepted should expect copious suggestions for revision and augmentation from readers and the editorial staff.

    From the initial stage of submission to final revisions of accepted essays, authors should always bear in mind that the audience of NCS is truly interdisciplinary. Readers are professional scholars, committed to study of the nineteenth century in all its aspects, but not necessarily sharing training in the field of a given contributor. We look therefore for essays that make original contributions to their respective fields, while managing also to make that scholarship available to a broader audience. Both aims may be achieved only after a substantial review and editing process, but the potential should be present in a submission from the start.

    Review Essays Nineteenth Century Studies reviews recent publications and events of interest to scholars in all fields of nineteenth-century scholarship. In the printed journal, publications are treated, not individually, but as part of review essays, which take the form of book review essays, art exhibitions reviews, and electronic resources reviews. Typically, essay reviews are solicited by the editors, although interested scholars are welcome to submit a prospectus for proposed reviews along with a brief résumé of relevant qualifications for undertaking the project.

    Submission Requirements

    Manuscripts must be submitted to Nineteenth Century Studies through the PSUP Editorial Manager and must meet the following requirements. Submissions not meeting these specifications will either be adjusted by the editorial staff to conform with specifications or refused pending adjustment by the author. On acceptance, manuscripts may be required to adhere to additional format and style specifications.

    General Submission Criteria

  • NCS uses a double-blind review process. All references to or clues about the author's identity must be removed from the article text and notes prior to submission.
  • Figures, photos, tables, appendices, etc., must be submitted as separate files/documents, not embedded in the article text. See Figures, Tables, Appendices.
  • Article submissions should be accompanied by an Abstract of up to 200 words (see Abstracts). Along with Abstract, please submit 1–5 key words.
  • Authors are responsible for securing permissions and paying the required fees for the use of any material previously published elsewhere, and for reproduction of artwork and other images. Copies of permission letters should be sent to the Pennsylvania State University Press with the author's publication contact.
  • Authors guarantee that the contribution does not infringe any copyright, violate any other property rights, or contain any scandalous, libelous, or unlawful matter.
  • Authors guarantee that the contribution has not been published elsewhere and is not currently under consideration elsewhere.
  • In all matters of style, authors of articles accepted for publication in NCS agree to conform to The Chicago Manual of Style and to the journal's house style.
  • Manuscript Format

  • Microsoft Word files. with all text, including endnotes, formatted in Times New Roman font, size 12 point, with double line-spacing throughout. All footnotes converted to endnotes, double spaced, and rendered 12-point Times Roman.
  • Citation Style in Chicago Manual of Style called "notes and bibliography" (sect. 14, 17th ed.). Except for special purposes, NCS does not publish bibliographies in addition to endnotes. See NCS Style.
  • Endnote callouts embedded in the text, automatically numbered consecutively throughout the article, using superscript Arabic numerals following punctuation marks.
  • Paragraph indentation by tab only, not by space bar or paragraph indent function. No extra lines between paragraphs.
  • Single spaces following periods between sentences throughout the manuscript.
  • Pages numbered at the bottom right.
  • No function of "Track Changes" remaining in use. Please check the document for any remaining tracked changes, hidden text, or comments, and delete them.
  • "Style" field reads "Normal" throughout text.
  • Use "main headings" and "subheadings."
  • Subheads may be formatted for italic to distinguish them from a full heading
  • No automated lists: all numbers or bullets must be keyed.
  • Epigraphs and extracts set full measure (no indent) and set off from other text only with an extra line space above and below. For epigraphs, on a line immediately below the text, provide the name of the author, the source, and the date of the source. Do not use an endnote.
  • Dedications placed as an unnumbered note at the beginning of endotes.
  • Figures, Tables, Appendices

  • No figures, tables, appendices embedded in text of article. Submitted as files/documents separate from the article text.
  • Within the article text, indications supplied for placement of tables, figures, appendixes. E.g., <Table 1>, <Figure 2>, <Appendix 1>
  • Tables submitted in MS-Word. All tables may be included in one document.
  • Charts and graphs submitted in MS-Excel or its original source file.
  • All figure captions submitted together in a single MS-Word document.
  • Figures (images) may be submitted initially in a low-resolution format separate from the article text. On acceptance of an article for publication, digital images to be supplied as either .tiff or .jpeg files (preferably .tiff files, if possible) at a resolution of at least 300 dpi and at the size the images are to appear in print (e.g., for most purposes, an appropriate size for a 300 dpi rectangular image would be at least 1200 by 2400 pixels, height and width respectively).
  • If possible, all digital files (photos) to be supplied in grayscale. Otherwise, the press will convert to grayscale.
  • Length The expected length of feature essays ranges between 6,000 and 10,000 words, including notes. Longer essays may be acceptable, although very long submissions will be scrutinized for excess baggage.

    Review essays typically discuss at least three texts, sometimes several more. They should therefore be no shorter than about 2,500 words and can run longer, depending on the number of publications discussed. Unusually long review contributions should be cleared with the editor. Reviews published online typically deal with a single text and average 500–1000 words.


    What is an Abstract?

    An abstract allows readers to quickly and accurately identify the basic content of your article. It is an invaluable research guide because it is most often what potential readers use to decide whether your article is relevant for them.

    Abstracts at a Glance:

  • Condensed version of the article
  • Highlights the major points covered
  • Concisely describes the content and scope of the work
  • Helps readers decide whether to read the entire article
  • Provides readers with a preview of research
  • Contains relevant keywords for searching and indexing
  • Many online databases, such as JSTOR, use both abstracts and full-text options to index articles. Therefore, abstracts should contain keywords and phrases that allow for easy and precise searching. Incorporating keywords into the abstract that a potential researcher would search for emphasizes the central topics of the work and gives prospective readers enough information to make an informed judgement about the applicability of the work.

    Writing Tips

    An abstract is a self-contained piece of writing that can be understood independently from the article. It must be kept brief (approximately 150–250 words) and may include these elements:

  • Statement of the problem and objectives (gap in literature on this topic)
  • Thesis statement or question
  • Summary of employed methods, viewpoint, or research approach
  • Conclusion(s) and/or implications of research
  • Keep in Mind...

    Depending on your rhetorical strategy, an abstract need not include your entire conclusion, as you may want to reserve this for readers of your article. The abstract should, however, clearly and concisely indicate to the reader what questions will be answered in the article. You want to cultivate anticipation so the reader knows exactly what to expect when reading the article—if not the precise details of your conclusion(s).


  • Include your thesis, usually in the first 1–2 sentences
  • Provide background information placing your work in the larger body of literature
  • Use the same chronological structure as the original work
  • Follow lucid and concise prose
  • Explain the purpose of the work and methods used
  • Use keywords and phrases that quickly identify the content and focus of the work
  • Mimic the type and style of language found in the original article, including technical language
  • Do Not

  • Refer extensively to other works
  • Add information not contained in the original work
  • Define terms
  • Repeat or rephrase your title
  • Examples

    The abstract should begin with a clear sense of the research question and thesis.

    ″While some recent scholars claim to have refuted the relevance of stylometric analysis for Plato studies, new technological advances reopen the question. In this article I use two recently completed stylometric analyses of the Platonic corpus to show that advanced artificial intelligence techniques such as genetic algorithms can serve as a foundation for chronological assertions.″

    It is often useful to identify the theoretical or methodological school used to approach the thesis question and/or to position the article within an ongoing debate. This helps the readers situate the article in the larger conversations of your discipline.

    ″The debate among Watts, Koupria, and Brecker over the reliability of stylometry (PMLA 126.6, Fall 2009) suggests that ...″ or ″Using the definition of style proposed by Markos (2014), I argue that ...″

    Finally, briefly state the conclusion.

    ″Through analyzing the results of Watts and Koupria's genetic algorithmic stylometry, I demonstrate that they provide solutions to roadblocks previously identified in stylometric analyses of the Platonic corpus for the purposes of developing a reliable chronology. These solutions ...″

    NCS Style

    1. General

    On acceptance of articles, reviews, and other materials for publication, authors agree to conform with style requirements as specificed by the Chicago Manual of Style and by NCS house style.

    The documentation system used by NCS is what the Chicago Manual of Style calls “the notes and bibliography” (17th ed., sec. 14.19, p. 751) – as opposed to an “author-date system” or something like that recommended by the MLA Handbook. In NCS, all documentation is provided in notes, and works-cited lists are nowhere printed, nor do we print bibliographies unless called for by an article specifically intended as a review of research.

    For example, whereas MLA recommends:

    Brian Taves suggests some interesting conclusions regarding the philosophy and politics of the adventure film (153–54, 171).

    backed up by an entry in a works-cited list that reads:

    Taves, Brian. The Romance of Adventure. Jackson: UP of Mississippi, 1993.

    NCS prefers:

    Brian Taves suggests some interesting conclusions regarding the philosophy and politics of the adventure film.1

    accompanied by a note that reads:

    1. See Brian Taves, The Romance of Adventure (Jackson: University Press of Mississippi, 1993), 153–54, 171.

    To take another example, when following strict author-date style, a quotation would be documented as follows:

    Michel Foucault, for example, describes the discourse of confession as an “internal ruse,” an “immense labor to which the West has submitted generations in order to produce . . . men’s subjection” (1978, 60).

    backed up by a reference-list entry that reads:

    Foucault, Michel. 1978. The History of Sexuality. Trans. Robert Hurley. New York: Pantheon.

    NCS prefers:

    Michel Foucault, for example, describes the discourse of confession as an “internal ruse,” an “immense labor to which the West has submitted generations in order to produce . . . men’subjection.”2

    accompanied by a note that reads:

    2. Michel Foucault, The History of Sexuality, trans. Robert Hurley (New York: Pantheon, 1978), 60.

    2. Exceptions

    In certain instances, it is permissible to give page numbers for certain primary sources in the text instead of in notes. Take, for example, an article on Villette,. The first time the novel is quoted in the text a note identifying the edition used should be provided:

    3. Charlotte Brontë, Villette (1853), ed. Mark Lilly (New York: Penguin, 1979), 40 (chap. 6). Page (and chapter) numbers for subsequent quotations will be given parenthetically in the text.

    Then, page numbers for subsequent quotations can be given in the text as follows:

    Lucy insists that her “confession” is not a revelation of sin but simply the acknowledgement of her silent sufferings:“I said, I was perishing for a word of advice or an accent of comfort . . . . I had a pressure of affliction on my mind of which it would hardly any longer endure the weight” (p. 33 [chap. 5]).

    It should be noted, however, that such a citation strategy is reserved for situations where only one or two texts, and a very large number of citations of each, are involved.

    3. Inclusive Page Numbers

    Given that scholars are increasingly forced to rely on interlibrary loan to obtain their research materials, NCS has adopted the policy of always providing inclusive page numbers, not just for journal articles, but also for essays in collections – for anything, in fact, that is a part of a larger whole (newspaper and magazine articles, forewords and afterwords, introductions and epilogues, etc.). If inclusive page numbers have not been provided in the version of the essay that is submitted for copyediting, they will be queried during the copyediting process.

    Should the first citation of, say, a journal article be, not just a journal reference, but documentation for a quote, the note citation should be set up as follows (with inclusive page numbers first, then the page number for the quote):

    4. Kate Lawson, “Reading Desire: Villette as Heretic Narrative,”English Studies in Canada 17 (March 1991): 53–71, 53.

    4. Subsequent Citations

    Subsequent citations of a work should use both the author’s last name and a short title. A subsequent citation of, for example, the Foucault book used as an examle in sec. 1 above might read:

    5. Foucault, History of Sexuality, 69.

    While NCS style allows the use of ibid., it does not allow idem, op., cit., or loc. cit. Please note also that ibid. can only be used only to refer to a single work cited in the note immediately preceding. It should not be used if more than one work is given in the preceeding note. Ibid. takes the place of both the author’s name and the title of the work as well as as much of the succeeding material as is identical. It may, therefore, in many cases be used to repeat the complete preceeding citation.

    5. Divisions within Works

    Because not all readers are likely to have on hand the same edition of, say, David Copperfield, In Memoriam A.H.H., Past and Present, or Biographia Literaria that is used in a particular NCS essay, chapter, section, or other subdivision numbers should be supplied along with page numbers when documenting quotations from primary sources:

    6. Charles Dickens, David Copperfield (1849-1850), ed. Trevor Blount (Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1966), 49 (bk. 1, chap. 1).

    Alfred Lord Tennyson, In Memoriam A.H.H. (1850), in The Poems of Tennyson, ed. Christopher Ricks (London: Longmans, Green, 1969), 907 (sec. 51, lines 5–8).

    Thomas Carlyle, Past and Present (1843), with an introduction by Douglas Jerrold (London: Dent/Everyman’s, 1960), 230 (bk. 4, chap. 1.).

    Samuel Taylor Coleridge, Biographia Literaria; or, Biographical Sketches of My Literary Life and Opinions (1817), ed., with an introduction by, George Watson (1956; reprint, with additions and corrections, London: Dent, 1974), 16–17 (vol. 1, chap. 2).

    6. Secondhand References

    NCS prefers to avoid secondhand references. As far as possible, quotations should be taken from original sources. And, even if the original source cannot be obtained, complete publication information for that original source should be provided, along with information about the source from which the citation is taken:

    10. Anonymous account from L'Ami de la religion 151 (March 1851): 14, quoted in Joseph C. Sloane, Paul Marc Joseph Chenavard: Artist of 1848 (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1962), 121.

    7. Citation of Online Material

    The findings of recent studies of the longevity of Internet citations are sobering. For example, a study of “more than 1000 articles published between 2000 and 2003 in the New England Journal of Medicine, The Journal of the American Medical Association, and Science” found that, “in articles 27 months old, 13% of Internet references were inactive” (Robert P. Dellaville, “Going, Going, Gone: Lost Internet References,” Science 302, no. 5646 [31 October 2003]: 787–88, 787 [Abstract]). The problem is, of course, that the scholarly community tends to treat Internet sources as if they are permenant, when, in fact, many are ephemeral. Without prejudicing Internet sources, NCS would like to ensure that the documentation offered in its pages is as useful as possible for as long as possible. To that end, we request that our authors observe the following guidelines.

    In cases in which both print and online versions of a primary or secondary source exist, an electronic citation alone will suffice if the reader can easily find the passage in question in the print version (e.g., alphabetized resources such as the DNB and the Encyclopedia Britannica):

    6. On the significance of Jevons for economic thought, see Encyclopedia Britannica Online, s.v. “Jevons, William Stanley,” http://search.eb.com/eb/article-9043592 (accessed 5 January 2006).

    If a citation solely to an online version makes the passage in question difficult to find in the print version, a double citation is preferred, e.g.:

    7. Sally Mitchell, Dinah Mulock Craik (Boston: Twayne, 1983), 110, available online at
    http://www.victorianweb.org/authors/craik/mitchell (accessed 7 January 2007).

    In cases in which a text (especially a primary text) is available both in print and electronically but the presentations do not merely replicate one another, we must make a judgment about what form of citation best serves the reader. That choice should above all be governed by quality of editing and presentation, and authors should be prepared to justify their choice of sources, whether print or electronic. A legitimate component of that justification may be convenience, which often draws authors to free online sources. The benefit of convenience can, however, be illusory, especially when a link comes up dead. ,Quality of editing being equal, sources can be cited solely in electronic or solely in print form, as long as chapter (or other subdivision) numbers are supplied, enabling the reader to find the passage in question easily enough in any form. If the source is not conveniently provided, then the citation of both electronic and print sources is helpful.

    8. Samples

    NCS follows Chicago Manual style for the documentation provided in notes. Samples of the more common types of entries follow. Further guidance may be obtained by consulting secs. 14.68-317, pp. 693-784 of the 16th edition..

    8.1. Journal Articles

    Jean M. Humez, “‘Ye Are My Epistles’: The Construction of Ann Lee Imagery in Early Shaker Sacred iterLature,” Journal of Feminist Studies in Religion 8, no. 1 (summer 1992): 83–103.

    Wayne C. Booth, “Amateur Pleasures,” Daedalus, no. 73 (March 1999): 21–37. [for journals that carry issue numbers instead of volume numbers]

    8.2. Magazine/Newpaper Articles

    Charles Hopkins, “The Shakers,” Regenerator 1 (8 February 1841): 116–17.

    Nathan Lane, “At Home with Irene Ryan,” Newsweek, 14 May 1973, 77–79.

    Bob Woodward, “A Decade After Nixon,” Washington Post, 27 September 1984, A2, A10– A12

    8.3. Essays in Collections

    David Brion Davis, “The American Family and Boundaries in Historical Perspective,” in Dying or Developing? The American Family, 1660–1960, ed. David Reiss and Howard A. Hoffman (New York: Plenum, 1979), 1–20.

    8.4. Books

    Stephen J. Stein, The Shaker Experience in America (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1992).

    Alfred Sisley, Selected Letters, ed. Franz Kline (New York: International, 1978).

    Michel Foucault, Madness and Civilization: A History of Insanity in the Age of Reason (1961), trans. Richard Howard (New York: Pantheon, 1965; reprint, London: Routledge, 2001).

    Benedict Anderson, Imagined Communities (1983; rev. ed., London: Verson, 1991).

    Ralph Waldo Emerson, The Journals of Ralph Waldo Emerson, ed. Edward Waldo Emerson and Waldo Emerson Forbes, 10 vols. (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1909-14).

    S.T. Coleridge, Biographia Literaria, ed. James Engell and W. Jackson Bate, vol. 7 of The Collected Works of Samuel Taylor Coleridge, ed. Kathleen Coburn (Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1983).

    8.5. Letters

    William Wordsworth to Joseph Cottle, London, 29 June 1799, in The Letters of William and Dorothy Wordsworth, ed. Ernest de Selincourt (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1967), 42.

    8.6. Conference Papers, Dissertations, Etc.

    James Clark, “The Orangery at Kew” (paper presented at the annual meeting of the Modern Language Association, New Orleans, 29 December 2001).

    Toby Jenkins, “Serialized Fiction in Household Words” (paper presented at the conference “New Directions in Victorian Fiction,” Georgetown University, 17 February 1996).

    James Worthington, “The Last Years of the Oxford Movement” (Ph.D. diss., University of California, Berkeley, Department of English, 1988).

    N.W. Claiborne, “An Anatomy of Nineteenth-Century Fiction” (Columbia University, Department of English, 2001, typescript). [i.e., for an unpublished manuscript, a date and the author's institutional affiliation should be provided]

    9. Dates

    9.1 Supplying Dates of People, Works, Events, Etc.

    Because NCS is a period journal and interdisciplinary – publishing in areas such as art history in which dates are crucial for identifying works under discussion – we routinely identify life dates of nineteenth-century figures and dates of works and events. Context determines what dates are cited – of composition or publication, in the case of literary works; of composition, first performance, or publication, in the case of musical works; of design, erection, and/or destruction, in the case of buildings – so long as the choice is made clear and relevant.

    9.2 Form of Cited Dates

    NCS gives dates in the order day, month, year, (not month, day, year), e.g.:

    28 January 1956.

    10. Foreign-Language Quotations

    In essays concerned more than in passing with sources in languages other than English, NCS prefers to quote both in the original and in translation. We leave the order to the author's discretion, literary analysis perhaps awarding primacy to the original, with the translation following. Whichever order is followed, the basic forms follow.

    10.1. English Translation in Text, Original-Language in Note
    For example, at the end of En route, Durtal claims: “I am condemned to live apart from my fellows, for I am still too much of a literary man to make a monk, and yet I am already too much of a monk to remain among literary men.”14

    14. “[E]t me voici condamné à vivre dépareillé, car je suis encore trop homme de lettres pour faire un moine et je suis cependant déjà trop moine pour rester parmi less gens de lettres” (J.-K. Huysmans, En route [Paris: Plon, 1961], 380 [chap. 9]).

    10.2. Both Translation and Original-Language Version in Text

    a) Independent Clauses

    Already in Fontenay, he remembers his previous abode and, in particular, an ornament he had attached to the ceiling in order to be reminded of his unfortunate childhood at Lourps: “Thus, out of loathing and contempt for his childhood, he had hung from the ceiling of this room a little cage of silver wire, in which a captive cricket sang, just as the crickets had sung among the cinders and on the hearths of the Château de Lourps” (AN, 10 [chap. 1]). (“Ainsi, par haine, par mépris de son enfance, il avait pendu au plafond de cette pièce une petite cage en fil d’argent ou un grillon enfermé chantait comme dans les cendres des cheminées du château de Lourps” [Ar, 69-70].)

    b) Non-independent Clauses

    There remains only one visible proof of continuity, the portrait of “an inscrutable, wily face, its features lifeless and drawn, with cheekbones accentuated by a dash of rouge, thickly pomaded hair intertwined with pearls, and a taut, white-painted neck emerging from the goffers of a highly starched ruff” (AN, 3; “une tête mystérieuse et rusée aux traits morts et tirés, aux pommettes ponctuées d’une virgule de fard, aux cheveux gommés et enroulés de perles, au col tendu et peint, sortant des cannelures d'une rigide fraise” [Ar, 61]).

    c) Quotations Long Enough to Be Set off As Extracts
    . . . Descriptions of life with the parents are rendered literally obscure by an obstinate use of dim light and limited movement accentuated by theatrically deliberate posing:

    [H]is mother he remembered as lying motionless in a dark room
    in the Château de Lourps. Only rarely did husband and wife meet,
    and of those occassions he recalled lacklustre encounters, with the
    father and the mother seated opposite one other before a table lit
    only by a lamp with a large, very deep shade. (AN, 4).

    ([S]a mère il se la rappelait, immobile et couchée, dans une chambre
    obscure du château de Lourps. Rarement,le mari et la femme étaient
    réunis, et de ces jours-là, il se remémorait des entrevues décolorées,
    le père et la mère assis, en face l’un de l’autre, devant un guéridon qui
    était seul éclairé par une lampe au grand abat-jour très baissé. [Ar, 62])

    Des Esseintes’s biological affinities with his parents significantly undermined, the possibility of intellectual kinship is entirely rejected owing to a serious lack of communication . . . .

    10.3. Both Translation and Orginal-Language Version in Notes

    a) Translation in the Body Proper of a Note, Original-language Text in Parentheses Following Documentation

    Daniel Grojnowski notes: “[Des Esseintes] applies himself to the transformation of his entire existence into a work of art. He fashions it as such, isolated from the world, autonomous, and posits it as a full-fledged reality: a devised reality, a written reality, which readjusts the declaration of faith of ‘The Experimental Novel’” (Le Sujet d’ “A rebours” [Villeneuve d’Ascq (Nord): Presses Universitaires du Septentrion, 1996], 96–97; “[Des Esseintes] s’applique . . . à faire de son existence tout entière une oeuvre d’art. Il l’élabore comme telle, coupée du monde extérieur, autonome, et il la pose comme un réel à part entière: réalité concertée, réalité écrite qui réajuste les professions de foi du Roman expérimental”).

    b) Note Consisting of Nothing but Translation and Original

    18. “His family hardly paid him any attention; sometimes his father would visit him at his boarding school: ‘Hallo, goodbye, be a good boy, work hard.’ He spent the summer holidays at the Château de Lourps; his presence did not disturb his mother's reveries; she seemed barely conscious of his presence, or else might watch him for a few seconds with an almost painful smile on her face, then disappear once again into the artificial night with which the thick casemet curtains shrouded the room” (AN, 4 [prologue]). (“Sa famille se préoccupait peu de lui; parfois son père venait le visiter au pensionnat: ‘Bonjour, bonsoir, sois sage et travaille bien.’ Aux vacances, l’ été, il partait pour le château de Lourps; sa présence ne tirait pas sa mère de ses rêveries; elle l’apercevait à peine, ou le contemplait, pendant quelques secondes, avec un sourire presque douloreux, puis elle s'absorbait de nouveau dans la nuit factice dont les épais rideaux des croisées enveloppaient la chambre.” [Ar, 62–63].)

    c) English Translation Given in the Text Is Not the Author's, but One Taken from Another Source, and the One Given in the Note Is Not Taken from the Original, but from a Secondary Source

    98. Chenavard quoted in Sloane, Chenavard, 73–74 (“Panthéon vraiment fraternal qui s'ouvrirait devant les grands hommes de toutes les nations et de tous les temps” [Chenavard quoted in Alexis Bertrand, “Le Mouvement sociologique: Art et sociologie d’après les lettres inédites de Paul Chenavard,” Archives d’anthropologie criminelle, de medicine, et de psychologie normale et pathologique, 15 July 1911, 525–49, 533]).

    11. Reviews

    11.1 Style for Review Headers

    Please follow the order of bibliographic information in the sample below. Page-number counts include prefatory unnumbered or roman-numeral numbered material plus arabic-numbered main text. Count the number of black-and-white and/or color illustrations and other figures such as tables. Current book prices can be found on publishers' websites.

    Family Fictions and Family Facts: Harriet Martineau, Adolphe Quetelet, and the Population Question in England, 1798–1859. By Brian P. Cooper. New York: Routledge, 2007. Pp. viii + 294. 3 black-and-white illustrations and 7 tables. $130.00 (cloth).

    Submission & Review Process

    Submissions are first screened for appropriateness to the journal by the editor and then passed along for review by one or two readers. Readers are often drawn from the journal’s editorial board or the NCSA officers and board; however, since an interdisciplinary journal invites submissions from such a wide array of research interests, reviewers are just as often solicited from outside the immediate NCS and NCSA organization, which cannot represent every possible expertise.

    Review time typically takes one to five months, and can take longer if appropriate readers prove difficult to locate. Every effort is made to process submissions expeditiously, but also fairly and carefully.

    Checking Copyediting and Proofs

    Checking a Copyedited Manuscript

    responding to queries and making changes

    Before an accepted article is set in type, authors will be sent copyedited manuscript requiring response within a specified period of time. When you receive copyedited manuscript, please check carefully to make sure that the suggested editorial changes are acceptable and that none of the editing alters your intended meaning.

    Queries to the author are set as lettered notes at the bottoms of pages. Before returning the manuscript, please check especially carefully that all queries have been answered. Every effort must be made to resolve problems at this point of production, before the manuscript goes to proofs. Changes at the proof stage can be problematic and must therefore be held to a minimum.

    When answering queries and making corrections on copyedited manuscript, please use a colored pencil or pen. Lead-pencil or black-ink changes are easily overlooked. Minor changes can be made directly on the printout. Longer or more complicated changes should be provided on separate sheets. Authors may also respond to queries electronically supplying a numbered list matching the numbering on the queries.

    reading "redlining and strikeout"

    Manuscripts are edited using WordPerfect’s redlining and strikeout functions. You are provided with two printouts: one (the redline/strikeout version) renders visible the proposed editing; the other (the “clean” copy) is a straightforward rendering of the end result.

    Please make all corrections on the clean copy of your essay. We also strongly suggest that you keep a photocopy of your corrections for future reference.

    In the redline/strikeout version, material to be deleted is literally struck out, and material to be added appears against a shaded background.

    For example, suppose that we wanted to change

    She resists his advances at first, but eventually admits she loves him, though her sense of virtue prevents her from acting on those feelings. Instead, she becomes insane.

    to read

    She resists his advances at first but eventually admits that she loves him. Her sense of virtue, however, prevents her from acting on those feelings, and, as a result, she goes insane.

    The redline/strikeout version would look like this:

    She resists his advances at first, but eventually admits that she loves him, though her him. Her sense of virtue, however, prevents her from acting on those feelings., Instead, she becomes and, as a result, she goes insane.

    Your manuscript may be marked with a variety of codes identifying elements of your essay that require special typographic treatment. Some specialized codes you may encounter are as follows:

    <ti> essay title
    <au> author’s name
    <epi> epigraph
    <A> first-level head
    <B> second-level head
    <ext> prose or verse extract
     -- em-dash
    <en> en-dash
    <2en> 2-en-dash
    <sc> small caps
    <#> extra space
    <nt> superscript note number

    returning copyedited manuscript and attachments
    The allotted time for checking copyedited manuscript may vary in individual cases, but in general please plan on returning the corrected “clean” copy of your manuscript within 3 weeks of receipt. If you anticipate being unable to respond in the time allotted, please contact us immediately.

    If your essay is illustrated and we have not yet received camera-ready artwork, please supply it when you return the manuscript (we will need it to prepare page proofs), along with caption copy and all requisite permissions.

    If you have not already done so, please also supply a brief bio, including affiliation (institution and department), rank (if desired), and recent publications or projects in progress. Please stay within 50-75 words.

    Checking Proofs

    what are proofs?

    After you have returned copyedited manuscript, we enter all final corrections and revisions. We then pull the corrected text into a set of page templates for the printed journal. This is how your article will appear in print. From this formatted version of your article, we print laser-copy proofs, which we proof for any errors that may have occurred when entering your final corrections from copyedited manuscript. We then enter final corrections, if any, and print a fresh set of proofs for you to check and to give your final approval.

    avoid revision in proofs

    There is usually very little time for you to check proofs. This certainly is not a time for major revisions, which were supposed to have been addressed at the stage of copyedited manuscript. Because our staff is working under intense pressure at this stage, major changes by an author can be disastrous: expensive, critically time-consuming, and prone to import new errors at a time when we are least able to proof carefully.

    You should therefore check proofs for typographical errors only. If you notice very minor points of fact, style, and grammar that need correction and that were overlooked at the copyediting stage, then these can be accommodated. Proof correction is not an inflexible process; however, every change at this stage carries a heightened risk of introducing new errors and must be held to a minimum.


    Please follow the instructions in the checklist below. If you notice any formatting problems, such as orphan/widow lines, improperly spaced lines (i.e., too much space between words), or improper word division, we welcome you to bring these to our attention. However, our usual practice is to address such problems during the final stage of page makeup, after you have returned your proofs, and we have entered the very final corrections.

    Proof carefully for typographical errors. Since we have never rekeyboarded your essay, but have edited your essay using the computer file that you supplied to us, the only typographical errors you should find at this point are any that may have been introduced when entering your final revisions and corrections from copyedited manuscript. Of course, it is always possible that we overlooked errors at the copyediting stage that also remain to be corrected.

    Answer all queries, if any.

    Please make all corrections on this set of proofs. We also strongly suggest that you keep a photocopy of your corrections for future reference. Please use colored pen or pencil; lead-pencil changes are easy to miss.

    Send a brief bio for the contributor's page (if one has not already been provided).

    returning proofs

    You will be notified by email and/or in writing when you receive your proofs of the latest date by which you may return the proofs. As emphasized earlier, by this stage we are working on a very tight schedule. We are constrained by a schedule contracted with our printer. Delays cannot be accommodated. If you anticipate trouble meeting your deadline, please contact us immediately.

    If corrections are simple, you can email them to us. To avoid ambiguities, however, it is often best that the marked proofs be sent to us by post or courier service, mailed in time to reach us by the scheduled date.

    Please stay in contact! Let us know the best way for us to contact you during the time you are correcting proofs and the next few weeks after you return them.